Facing the increasing demand for data storage, sharing and multimedia processing, more and more users are looking for a NAS system with good performance and an affordable price tag. The Intel® quad-core TS-451+ provides an uncompromising high-performance scalable storage solution for professional users.
Powered by the intelligent QTS 4.2 operating system, the TS-451+ performs as an easy-to-use yet powerful NAS for data backup, file synchronization and sharing, remote access and multimedia applications, and is ideal for users to create a secure private cloud to access their data easily. Centralize your file storage, sharing and backup with excellent performance. Run multiple Windows®, Linux®, UNIX® and Android based virtual machines with the Virtualization Station.Operate multiple isolated Linux® systems as well as download containerized apps with Container Station. Play 1080p videos with the bundled remote control and multi-channel audio pass-through via HDMI.
Transcode Full HD videos on-the-fly or offline. Stream multimedia files via DLNA®, AirPlay®, Chromecast and Bluetooth® with multi-zone multimedia control. Quickly find specific files by real-time, natural search with Qsirch. Scale up to 12 drives with QNAP UX-800P expansion enclosure.
Quad-core 64-bit Intel® Celeron® CPU for exceptional performance. The TS-451+ is powered by a 64-bit Intel® Celeron® quad-core 2.0GHz processor and has 2GB/8GB energy-efficient DDR3L RAM (upgradable to 8GB) and dual Gigabit LAN ports, delivering up to 225 MB/s read & write speeds with port trunking mode. The TS-451+ can also automatically increase the processor's clock rate from 2.0GHz to 2.42GHz when needed for CPU-intensive tasks.The TS-451+ supports AES 256-bit volume & folder encryption with transfer speeds of up to 204 MB/s, boosting system performance & security while ensuring the safety of sensitive personal data stored in the TS-451+. Figures could vary by environment. Test environment: NAS: OS: QTS 4.2.0 Volume type: RAID 5; 4 x Seagate 1TB HDD (ST1000NM0033) Network environment: direct connection between NAS and PC, 1GbE LAN (MTU 1500) Client PCs: Intel® Core i7-4790 3.60GHz CPU; DDR3-1600 16GB; Seagate 500GB ST500DM002; Intel Gigabit CT (MTU 1500);Windows® 7Professional 64bit SP1 IOMeter configuration: Transferring 8GB file continuously to/from 4 PCs for 3 minutes. Block size: 64KB for SMB2.0 (Throughput). QTS 4.2 - Simple and efficient.
Thanks to the intuitive user interface of QTS 4.2, your NAS experience is smarter, smoother and spectacular. Its modern flat design streamlines loading times, and the intelligent desktop allows you to quickly find desired functions, create desktop shortcuts or group shortcuts, monitor important system information on a real-time basis, and open multiple application windows to run multiple tasks concurrently, bringing greater operating efficiency.QTS breaks the barriers of devices, platforms and geography to bring optimized cloud experiences to you, and incorporates more advanced features including volume/LUN snapshot, remote connection to public cloud services in File Station, multi-zone multimedia system, and more. Run additional operating systems on the TS-451+. The Virtualization Station transforms the TS-451+ into a 2-in-a-box NAS that can function as an all-in-one NAS and a virtualization platform that supports multiple operating systems, fast VM creation, VM backup & restoration, VM import/export, snapshot, Device Management for centrally managing VM, and enables desktop operations on web browsers. With the easy-to-use interface, you can centrally manage all of the VMs created on the TS-451+ with minimal effort. You can also download VMs on demand from online VM markets and import them to the TS-451+ without any complex procedures. Container Station LXC and Docker® Containers inclusive. QNAP Container Station exclusively integrates LXC and Docker® lightweight virtualization technologies, allowing you to operate multiple isolated Linux® systems on the TS-451+ as well as download apps from the built-in Docker Hub® Registry. It supports container import/export and permission settings, and features an informative dashboard and flexible user interface for you to manage multiple containers. You can experience the amazing Container Station and enjoy the playground of virtual containers with the TS-451+. Container Station also supports Online Document app, which allows you to directly view, edit and store files of various types anytime on your NAS, including Office documents, images and text files. Available by end of 2015. Use your TS-451+ as a PC with QvPC Technology. QNAP's exclusive QvPC Technology consolidates a number of high-end technologies including VM integration, multimedia transcoding, HDMI output, cloud integration and NAS connection technologies, allowing users to operate the TS-451+ as a PC when they plug in a keyboard, mouse and HDMI monitor.
With QvPC Technology, the TS-451+ is transformed into a cost-effective device with PC functionalities for users to directly access stored data, run multiple applications using Windows®/Linux®/UNIX®/Android based VMs, surf the web, enjoy Full HD videos with Kodi, monitor surveillance live feeds from IP cameras in real time, and much more. Enjoy videos on TV via HDMI with bundled remote control. With HDMI connectivity, you can connect the TS-451+ to a HDTV to watch your rich multimedia content on the big screen. The splendid user interface and support for 7.1-channel audio passthrough bring smooth playback of 1080p videos. HD Station supports multi-tasking and user authentication so only authorized users can access the stored data via HDMI monitors.
The TS-451+ is packed with the QNAP RM-IR002 remote control for you to conveniently control HD Station via the built-in IR receiver. You can also turn your mobile devices into remote controls by installing the Qremote app. HD Station also supports YouTube Pairing, allowing you to select a YouTube video on your smartphone, tablet or computer and play it on your HDTV via the TS-451+.A receiver with HDMI support is required for decoding multi-channel surround sound. Real-time & offline video transcoding. The TS-451+ delivers superior real-time Full HD video transcoding to convert your videos to formats that can be smoothly played on PCs, mobile devices and Smart TVs. It allows for multiple devices to simultaneously view different videos stored on the TS-451+ with on-the-fly hardware accelerated transcoding, saving your time in converting videos to different formats for different devices. With the benefits of offline transcoding, if you can only connect to an Internet connection with limited/restricted bandwidth, you can still enjoy smooth videos via File Station, Video Station, or the Qfile app by selecting a pre-rendered lower-resolution video, saving system resources of the TS-451+ for other applications.
The TS-451+ also allows you to set a dedicated folder for automatic video transcoding. Enjoy media freely with multi-zone multimedia control. Use your TS-451+ as a multi-zone multimedia system to fill every corner of your house with your choice of media. You can centrally manage and stream photos, music and videos from the TS-451+ to different rooms from a single device using Bluetooth®& USB devices connected to the TS-451+ (for music streaming only), HDMI, DLNA®, Apple TV® and Chromecast. Every room member in different zones can enjoy the convenience and simplicity for media playback and multimedia storage.Alternatively, to enjoy multimedia yourself, you can choose DLNA-compatible devices, use the Qfile app on an iOS® device to browse videos/photos and play on the TV via Apple TV®, or transform the TS-451+ into a powerful streaming machine with DLNA®, Roku®, Amazon® Fire TV, and Google TV support with the support of Plex Media Server. To stream multimedia via Chromecast, you must first install the multimedia extension pack from the QTS App Center. Qsirch A smarter, faster way to search. Quickly and easily find documents, photos, videos, and music with Qsirch, QNAP's new built-in NAS search application lets you find what you need by real-time, natural search. Simply type in as much as you know about what you are trying to find, including parts of the file name or even words/phrases in the document, and Qsirch will display a list of matches, complete with thumbnails, as you type. Qsirch even remembers your search history so you can quickly navigate to files you've previously searched for. Qsirch is a huge productivity boost that greatly reduces the amount of time spent looking for files on the NAS so you can focus on other tasks. Cross-platform file sharing, centralized data storage.
The TS-451+ supports SMB/CIFS, NFS, and AFP protocols for file sharing across Windows®, Mac® and Linux®/UNIX®. Data, logs and ISO image of CDs and DVDs can be centrally stored in the TS-451+ and protected by an integrated antivirus solution. File Station integrated with cloud services.
The web-based File Station enables you to easily upload, download, and manage files on your TS-451+ wherever there is an internet connection. What's even better, you can also directly browse and transfer files between the TS-451+ and public cloud services like Google Drive, Dropbox®, Microsoft® OneDrive, Box®, Yandex® Disk and Amazon® Cloud Drive through File Station, and view files with Office Online and Google Docs or directly open them with a Google Chrome office extension. Well-rounded backup solutions to secure data. Apple Time Machine® is also supported to provide Mac® OS X users with a solution to effortlessly back up data to the TS-451+.
A wide range of third-party backup software such as Acronis® True Image and Symantec® Backup Exec are also supported. Disaster recovery solutions bring peace of mind. The TS-451+ offers various data recovery options. RTRR (Real-Time Remote Replication) supports real time and scheduled data backup to remote QNAP NAS or FTP servers and synchronizes files to remote folders from local folders with better backup efficiency. You can enjoy backup versioning to preserve a certain amount of versions, with options of simple versioning to schedule how many versions should be retained and for how long, or smart versioning with a rotation scheme that automatically replaces earlier backup versions.The TS-451+ also supports rsync protocol to back up data to remote servers on a scheduled basis. Data can also be backed up to and restored from a range of cloud storage services, including Amazon® S3, Amazon® Glacier, Microsoft® Azure, ElephantDrive®, Dropbox®, Google Drive, Google Cloud Storage, and more. Volume & LUN snapshot simplifies restoration.
Not limited to high-end models, the TS-451+ brings the highly-anticipated snapshot function for your flexible usage. QTS Storage Manager adds an easy-to-use web-based snapshot tool for you to easily back up and restore data on the TS-451+ back to any point of time to prevent loss of important data. You can take up to 256 snapshots per volume or LUN, efficiently replicate volume/LUN snapshots to remote servers by copying only the changes made, and quickly clone a volume /LUN snapshot as a local volume without interrupting the current system operation. You can even set up the system to automatically take a snapshot of the volume before backup via RTRR/rsync, even when the file is opened. Note: Snapshot function requires a minimum 4GB RAM.
In open network environments, data on the connected devices may be exposed in a potential hack. The TS-451+ provides numerous security options, such as 2-step verification, encrypted access, IP blocking, and more.
Administrators can also control the access rights of each user to different folders, preventing unauthorized access to important files. The TS-451+ is validated with military-level FIPS 140-2 AES 256-bit encryption, preventing sensitive data from unauthorized access and breach even if the hard drives or the entire system were stolen. Secure access with VPN Server & VPN Client. The TS-451+ can be a VPN server with L2TP/IPsec, OpenVPN, and PPTP support, allowing you to securely access data shared within the private local network.
The TS-451+ also supports VPN Client for PPTP and OpenVPN to protect your privacy during data transmission. File synchronization across devices and clouds.
Qsync utility turns your TS-451+ into a safe, large-capacity data center for file synchronization. Any file uploaded to the TS-451+ will be made available for all linked devices, such as computers, laptops or mobile devices. Qsync is especially useful for frequent travelers to manage files and always have the most up-to-date files on different devices. Qsync provides multiple ways of file synchronization and group file sharing, greatly enhancing the flexibility of team projects and collaboration. It also supports centralized configuration, and allows you to remotely erase the Qsync folder on a lost device to avoid data breaches, and even restore it after you have retrieved the device.You can also install the Cloud Drive Sync app from QTS App Center to easily sync files with Google Drive and Dropbox® cloud storage. Comprehensive surveillance solution providing 24/7 security. The TS-451+'s Surveillance Station offers a professional surveillance solution with a user-friendly management interface, a wide range of over 3,000 compatible IP camera models, and expandable IP camera channel licenses. It supports real-time monitoring, video & audio recording and playback with a wide range of customizable settings. You can also install the Vmobile app on your iOS® or Android devices to manage the monitoring of cameras anytime, anywhere, to safeguard your office environment, or install the Vcam mobile app to turn your device into a network camera to instantly record to your TS-451+.
The TS-451+ offers 2 free IP camera channels and you can expand up to 40 channels by purchasing additional licenses. Access and enjoy with your mobile devices. The TS-451+ is your private cloud storage that virtually enlarges the capacity of your smart mobile devices.
Qfile allows you to access, upload, download, manage, and share stored files easily as if you are carrying tons of files in your pocket. If Qfile is installed on an iOS® device, users can also browse videos & photos stored on the TS-451+ and play on a TV via Apple® TV. Qmanager lets you monitor & manage the TS-451+ remotely and efficiently without turning on your PC. You can take and share digital notes with Qnotes, and enjoy and share music, photos and videos on the TS-451+ anywhere and anytime with Qmusic, Qphoto and Qvideo apps.
Install-on-demand apps to extend NAS functionality. The TS-451+ has a built-in App Center that provides various install-on-demand apps developed by QNAP and third-party developers, including tools for backup/sync, business, content management, communications, download, entertainment, and much more. It is also a centralized location for managing & updating installed apps. In addition, QNAP's development platform embraces the open-source spirit to enable developers to create their own apps, adding potentially limitless potential for the TS-451+. LED indicators with adjustable brightness controls.With adjustable 3-stage brightness controls for LED indicators, the TS-451+ provides flexible LED brightness options. Based on the surrounding environment, you can adjust the brightness of all system indicators and also schedule the system to automatically dim the LEDs at certain times when needed. The TS-451+ supports online capacity expansion for archiving rapidly growing data by connecting a QNAP expansion enclosure. With the QNAP scale-up solution, the raw storage capacity can be expanded on demand, making the TS-451+ an ideal file center with large storage capacity for storage-intensive business applications. With the support of QJBOD Express (JBOD enclosures roaming), you can just connect a large capacity QNAP expansion enclosure to the TS-451+, and migrate data to another NAS through the JBOD enclosure without network connectivity. The maximum raw storage capacity available by connecting a QNAP expansion enclosure. To expand the storage space with an UX expansion enclosure, please create a separate static volume or storage pool on the UX expansion unit. RAID groups of storage pools cannot cross multiple enclosures. The maximum capacity is calculated by using 8TB HDDs. The TS-451+ utilizes a 22nm CPU and DDR3L RAM which feature low voltage, low power consumption, maintaining high performance in system operations with the benefit of energy-saving. Other eco-friendly designs include S3 sleep mode, HDD standby, scheduled power on/off, hard disk standby mode, and Wake on LAN. QNAP also packs the TS-451+ in an eco-friendly box to minimize the environmental impact. Quad-core Intel® Celeron® 2.0GHz (burst up to 2.42GHz). TS-451+-2G: 2GB DDR3L RAM (1 x 2GB) TS-451+-8G: 8GB DDR3L RAM (2 x 4GB).
Total memory slots: 2 SODIMM Expandable up to: 8 GB NOTE: 1. When installing two memory modules, please ensure that they are the same size and ideally use the same type of RAM for both memory slots. 4 x 2.5" or 3.5" SATA 6Gb/s, 3Gb/s HDD or SSD; hot swappable trays. 2 x USB 3.0 (Front: 1, Rear: 1) 2 x USB 2.0 (Rear). Yes (QNAP RM-IR002 remote control).
Power, Reset, USB Auto Copy. 177 x 180 x 235 mm 6.97 x 7.09 x 9.25 inch. 3 kg (6.61 lbs) / 4.3 kg (9.48 lbs). 1 x 12cm, 12V DC. External Power Adapter, 90W, 100-240V.S3 sleep: 0.57 HDD standby: 15.78 In operation (typical): 33.88. Sound pressure (LpAm) :16.9 dB(A). 595% RH non-condensing, wet bulb: 27C. Testing Environment: Refer to ISO 7779 ; Maximum HDD loaded ; Bystander Position ; Average data from 1 meter in front of operating NAS. QTS 4.2 (embedded Linux). External Hard Drive: EXT3, EXT4, NTFS, FAT32, HFS+. Windows 7 (32/64-bit), Windows 8 (32/64-bit), Windows Server 2003/2008 R2/2012/2012 R2. Internal hard drive standby mode.
Automatic power on after power recovery. USB and network UPS support with SNMP management. Local user access control for CIFS, AFP, FTP, and WebDAV. Application access control for Photo Station, Music Station, Video Station, and File Station. Subfolder permissions support for CIFS/SMB, AFP, FTP, and File Station.Chinese (Traditional & Simplified), Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese (Brazil), Romanian, Russian, Spanish, Swedish, Thai, Turkish. Microsoft Active Directory (AD) & Domain Controller support. Domain users login via CIFS/SMB, AFP, FTP, and File Station. QNAP flexible Volume/LUN with thin provisioning and space reclaim. Disk volume types: RAID 0,1, 5, 5 + hot spare, 6, 10, JBOD, Single. Supports snapshots (4GB System RAM required). Supports Volume/LUN snapshot (Max 256 snapshots). Snapshot agent for Windows VSS and VMware.
Online RAID capacity expansion and online RAID level migration. Storage expansion via a QNAP UX-500P/UX-800P expansion unit. Bad block scan and hard drive S.Private cloud storage and sharing. Free host name registration (DDNS). Supports myQNAPcloud SSL certificates (DDNS). Auto router configuration (via UPnP). Web-based file manager with HTTPS 2048-bit encryption. CloudLink for remote access without any complicated router setup. MyQNAPcloud connect for easy VPN connection (Windows VPN utility). TCP/IP (IPv4 & IPv6: Dual Stack).
Dual Gigabit NICs with jumbo frame (failover, multi-IP settings, port trunking/NIC teaming). Service binding based on network interfaces.
Proxy server (Squid Proxy Server via App Center). Protocols: CIFS/SMB, AFP (v3.3), NFS(v3), FTP, FTPS, SFTP, TFTP, HTTP(S), Telnet, SSH, iSCSI, SNMP, SMTP, and SMSC. Not all services supports IPv6.Syncs files across multiple devices with SSL support. Selective synchronization for only syncing specific folders. Use team folders as a file center for greater team collaboration (maximum sync tasks:32). Policy settings for conflicting files and file type filter support. Version control: up to 64 versions. Incremental synchronization for HDD space saving. Supports remote erase / restore. Supports Windows & Mac OS.
Network access protection with auto-blocking: SSH, Telnet, HTTP(S), FTP, CIFS/SMB, AFP. CIFS host access control for shared folders. FIPS 140-2 validated AES 256-bit volume-based and shared folder data encryption. AES 256-bit external drive encryption. The data encryption functions may be unavailablenot available in accordance with the legislative restrictions of some countries.Movable Icons and personalized desktop. Smart toolbar and dashboard for neat system status display. Network recycle bin for file deletion via CIFS/SMB, AFP, and File Station. Comprehensive logs (events & connection). System settings backup and restore. Mobile app: Qmanager for remote system monitoring & management. File sharing across Windows, Mac, and Linux/UNIX. Advanced folder permissions for CIFS/SMB, AFP, FTP.
PC-less BT, FTP/FTPS, and HTTP/HTTPS, Thunder, FlashGet and qqdl download (up to 500 Tasks). BT download with Magnet Link and PT support. Scheduled download and bandwidth control. RSS subscription and download (broadcatching). Proxy support for BT download.
Passive ftp port range control. A handy note-taking tool for everywhere you go via your private cloud. Direct and quick backup from Evernote with re-editing availability. RSS live feed and auto update. Online quick preview of multimedia attachments.Smart snapshot for version control. Collaborate on notes with multiple users. Provides Chrome Extension: Notes Station Clipper (Clip web page content to your notes).
Supports mounting a Cloud Drive (such as Google Drive, Dropbox, Microsoft OneDrive, Amazon Cloud Drive, Yandex Disk and Box). Supports mounting remote shared folders through FTP, WebDAV or Microsoft networking (SMB/CIFS).Supports opening documents via Office Online, Google Docs or Chrome Extension (Edit Office files in Google Docs, Sheets, and Slides). Supports ISO Mounting (Up to 256 ISO Files). Supports thumbnail display of multimedia files. Supports sharing download links and upload links. Supports sharing to other NAS users. Photo, music, and video preview and playback with hardware-accelerated transcoding. File Compression (ZIP or 7z). Creation of and sending download links for sharing public files with expiration date and password protection.
Video seeking support for video playback during on-the-fly transcoding. Supports slideshow playback in media viewer. Mobile App: Qfile for file browsing and management. HD (HybridDesk) Station 3.0.
Playback videos, music, photos on TV with KODI via HDMI. Watch various online content such as YouTube, Flickr, Picasa, Shoutcast, etc. Supports multi-lingual keyboard, input and mouse.Supports QNAP Qremote app and the official KODI remote app. A variety of applications are available including Skype, Plex, and more. Note: - The playback and quality of some video les may be affected by the system's CPU and GPU decoding abilities. Up to 7.1 channel audio passthrough is supported. Transcode video files to 240p, 360p, 480p, 720p and 1080p resolution.
Automatic video transcoding for watched folders. Embed subtitles into videos for background transcoding. Supports Virtual Machine (VM) creation to run operating systems such as Windows, Linux, Unix and Android. Supports VM import and export. Supports VM backup and restore.
Support three different networking modes: Isolated, External-only and Bridged. VM console can be displayed via HDMI output - QVM. Remote replication server (over rsync).
Real-time remote replication (RTRR) to another QNAP NAS or FTP server. Works as both RTRR server & client with bandwidth control. Encryption, compression, file filter, and transfer rate limitation. Encrypted replication between QNAP NAS servers. Desktop backup with QNAP NetBak Replicator for Windows.
Apple Time Machine backup support. Data backup to multiple external storage devices. Third party backup software support: Veeam backup & replication, Acronis True Image, Arcserve backup, emc retrospect, Symantec Backup Exec, etc.
Supports dynamic content including videos, images, music, and text. Supports design software: iArtist Lite. Supports most viewed, latest released and different categories content list. Max number of printers: 3. Print job display and management.IP-based and domain name-based privilege control. Creating and mapping shared folders by QNAP Windows Qfinder Pro. Creation of and connection to iSCSI target/LUN. Show photos by thumbnails, list, timeline, or folder view. Validity control for sharing albums.
Tag photos with text, colors, and ratings. Slideshows with background music and different transition effects. Geotag photos and display them on Google maps. Advanced search by tags, metadata, etc. Supports uploading photos/videos to Picasa, Flickr, Weibo, YouTube.Supports face detection (with the Photo Station Extension). Supports PDF to image conversion (with the Photo Station Extension). ISCSI target with multi-LUNs per target (Up to 256 targets/LUNs combined). Supports LUN mapping & masking. ISCSI LUN backup, one-time snapshot, and restoration. ISCSI connection and management by QNAP Windows Qfinder Pro. Virtual disk drive (via iSCSI initiator). Of virtual disk drives: 8.
Automatic classication via Media Library. Supports streaming music to multiple devices. Supports changing album covers via Google search or uploading photos.Up to 8 music alarms. Mobile app: Qmusic for music streaming and management. DRM-protected content is not supported. Supports over 3,000 IP cameras.
Instant playback to check recent events. Online editing to edit cameras during live view. Playback and speed control using the shuttle bar. Video preview on playback timeline.
Intelligent video analytics (IVA) for advanced video searching. Mobile surveillance app: Vmobile (iOS and Android). Mobile recording app: Vcam (iOS and Android).Audio and video sharing for Windows & Mac iTunes. Secure remote access: PPTPL2TP/IPsec & OpenVPN VPN services. Max number of clients: 30. Validity control for sharing collections. Tag videos with text, color, and ratings. Sort videos automatically into defined classifications. Display movie information from IMDB. Display movie posters from IMDB or user upload. Supports searching for subtitles online. Mobile app: Qvideo for online video browsing and management.
Supported VPN protocols: PPTP & OpenVPN services. PPTP Authentication: PAP, CHAP, MS-CHAP, MS-CHAPv2. PPTP Encryption: None, AES 40/128 bit, AES 256 bit. OpenVPN Encryption: None, AES 40/128 bit, AES 256 bit. Supports DLNA/UPnP TVs and players such as PlayStation 3/4 and Xbox 360/One.
Supported audio formats: AIFF, APE, DSD (DSF, DFF), FLAC, M4A, M4A Apple Lossless (ALAC), MP3, Ogg Vorbis, WAV (PCM, LPCM), WMA, WMA PRO, WMA VBR. Support CUE indexing file for APE, FLAC audio format. Video and Audio On-the-y Transcoding. Streams videos, photos and music from the NAS to Apple TV via Qle or Media Streaming add-on.
Streams videos, photos and music from the NAS to TV with a Chromecast dongle via Qle , Qvideo or Media Streaming add-on. Monitor NAS behind NAT router with Q'center Assistant. Virtual appliances supported for Hyper-V and VMware. Over 100 official and community software add-ons.
The item "QNAP TS-451+ 2G 4 Bay Diskless NAS Quad-core 2.0GHz CPU 2GB RAM TS-451Plus2" is in sale since Wednesday, May 10, 2017. This item is in the category "Computers/Tablets & Networking\Enterprise Networking, Servers\Network Storage Disk Arrays\Other Network Disk Arrays".shop" and is located in melbourne. This item can be shipped to Australia, North, South, or Latin America, all countries in Europe, all countries in continental Asia, New Zealand.